Recent papers

Water electrolysis

Holm et al. “Hydrogen costs from water electrolysis at high temperature and pressure.” Energy Conversion and Management (2021.)

A techno-economic analysis of water electrolysis for hydrogen production at high pressure.


Hydrogen policy

H. Talebian et al. "Policy Effectiveness on Emissions and Cost Reduction for Hydrogen Supply Chains..." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2021.)”

A comprehensive model to evaluate policy effectiveness on cost and emissions reductions for hydrogen infrastructure deployment.


Hydrogen and EVs

M. Schröder et al. “Optimization of a grid-connected, photovoltaic microgrid for electric vehicle charging and hydrogen production.” Applied Energy (2020.)”

Simultaneous infrastructure optimization for battery recharging and hydrogen refueling.


Electric vehicles

J. Fernández et al. “Impact of an electrified parkade on the built environment: An unsupervised learning approach.” Transportation Research Part D (2020.)”

Using machine learning to minimize or eliminate the need for urban upgrades or retrofits.



  1. W. Mérida , A. Sharafian, and O. Herrera (2020) “Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons without carbon dioxide emissions,” US Provisional Patent, No.: 63/026,955, Filed: May 2020.
  2. B. Zahiri1, P. K. Sow, C. H. Kung, W. Mérida. Controllable Wetting on Metal Oxide Surfaces. U.S. Provisional Patent Application No.: 62/487,805, Filed: April 20, 2017.
  3. D.A. Harrington and W. Mérida, “Methods and Apparatus For Indicating a Fault Condition in Fuel Cells and Fuel Cell Components. ” US Patent Application 20040091759. Assignee: Hydrogenics Test Systems (2004).
  4. W. Mérida, “Method and Apparatus for integrated water deionization, electrolytic hydrogen production, and electrochemical power generation,” US Patent 6,569,298 Assignee: General Hydrogen Corporation, Richmond, B.C., Canada (2003).
  5. Z. Dong, K.W. Kratschmar, D. Lu, M.E. Pastula, G.G. Wang, R. Zheng, W. Mérida, R. Mackie and M. Perry,Oxidant flow field for solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell” US Patent 6,663,997. Assignee: Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, B.C., Canada (2003).
  6. G. McLean, N. Djilali, C.E. Reid, J. Lindstrom, W. Mérida, Corrugated flow field plate assembly for a fuel cell, US Patent 6,544,681. Assignee: Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, B.C., Canada (2003).
  7. M. Routtenberg and W. Mérida, Hydrogen/Electric Energy Distribution SystemU.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial Number 60/159,023 (filed on October 12, 1999). Assignee: General Hydrogen Corporation, Richmond, B.C., Canada.
  8. G. McLean G. and W. Mérida, “Internal Support Structure for and Undulate Membrane Electrode Assembly in an Electrochemical Fuel Cell. International Patent No. WO002269A2. Assignee: Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, B.C., Canada (2000).
  9. G. McLean and W. Mérida,Electrochemical Fuel Cell having a Membrane Electrode Assembly formed in-situ and Methods of Forming Same.” International Patent No. WO002273A2. Assignee: Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, B.C., Canada (2000).
  10. W. Mérida and J.A. Barclay, Thermal Regenerators and Fabrication Methods for Thermal Regenerators, International Patent No. WO9828585A1. Assignee: Innovation and Development Corporation, University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C., Canada (1998).


Untitled Document


  1. T. Holm, T. Borsboom-Hanson, O. Herrera, W. Mérida. “Hydrogen costs from water electrolysis at high temperature and pressure.” Energy Conversion and Management (2021.) 
  2. H. Talebian, O. Herrera, W. Mérida. “Policy Effectiveness on Emissions and Cost Reduction for Hydrogen Supply Chains: The Case for British Columbia” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46(1), 998-1011 (2021). 
  3. 2020

  4. M. Schröder, Z. Abdin, W. Mérida. Optimization of a grid-connected, photovoltaic microgrid for electric vehicle charging and hydrogen production.” Applied Energy 277, 115562 (2020).
  5. C.E. Giacomin, T. Holm, W. Mérida. CaCO3 growth in conditions used for direct air capture. Powder Technology 370, 39-47 (2020).
  6. J. Speirs, P. Balcombe, P. Blomerus, M. Stettler, P. Achurra-Gonzalez, M. Woo, D. Ainalis, J. Cooper, A. Sharafian, W. Mérida, D. Crow, S Giarola, N. Shah, N. Brandon, A. Hawkes. “Natural gas fuel and greenhouse gas emissions in trucks and ships. Progress in Energy 2, 012002 (2020).
  7. J. A. Fernández, O. E. Herrera, W. Mérida. Impact of an Electrified Parkade on the Built Environment: An Unsupervised Learning Approach.” Transportation Research Part D 78(C), 102199 (2020).
  8. Z. Abdin, A. Zafaranloo, A. Rafiee, W. Mérida, W. Lipinski, K.R. Khalilpour. A review of hydrogen as an energy vector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 120, 109620 (2020).
  9. Z. Wang, A. Sharafian, W. Mérida. “Non-equilibrium thermodynamic model for liquefied natural gas storage tanks.” Energy 190, 116412 (2020).
  10. J. A. Diaz Real, P. Elsaesser, T. Holm, W. Mérida. “Electrochemical reduction on nanostructured TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic activity.” Electrochimica Acta 329, 135162 (2020).
  11. 2019

  12. T. Nguyen, Z. Abdin, T. Holm, W. Mérida. “Grid-connected electrolytic hydrogen production via large-scale water electrolysis.” Energy Conversion and Management 200, 112108 (2019).
  13. H. Talebian, O. Herrera, W. Mérida. “Spatial and Temporal Optimization of Hydrogen Fuel Supply Chain for Light Duty Passenger Vehicles in British Columbia. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 44(47), 25939-25956 (2019).
  14. A. Sharafian, P. Blomerus, W. Mérida. “Liquefied natural gas tanker truck-to-tank transfer for on-road transportation.” Applied Thermal Engineering, 162, 114313 (2019).
  15. C. H. Kung, P. K. Sow, B. Zahiri, W. Mérida. “Assessment and interpretation of surface wettability based on sessile droplet contact angle measurement: challenges and opportunities.” Advanced Materials Interfaces 6(16), 1900839 (2019).
  16. Z. Abdin, W. Mérida. “Hybrid energy systems for off-grid power supply and hydrogen production based on renewable energy: A techno-economic analysis.Energy Conversion and Management, 196, 1068-1079 (2019).
  17. T. Sharma, T. Holm, J. A. Diaz Real, W. Mérida. “Experimental Verification of Pore Impedance Theory: Drilled Graphite Electrodes with Gradually More Complex Pore Size Distribution.” Electrochimica Acta 317, 528-541 (2019).
  18. A. Sharafian, P. Blomerus, W. Mérida. “Natural gas as a ship fuel: Assessment of greenhouse gas and pollution reduction potential.” Energy Policy, 131, 332-346 (2019).
  19. T. Holm, J. A. Diaz Real, W. Mérida. Numerical modeling of complex collection efficiency for double channel electrodes. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 842, 115-126 (2019).
  20. A. Sharafian, R. Asaee, O.E. Herrera, W. Mérida. Liquefied natural gas fuel in heavy-duty vehicles: Examples in Canada and British Columbia.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 69, 123-140 (2019).
  21. D. Lopez-Behar⁠a⁠, M. Tran⁠⁠, J. R. Mayaud⁠, T. Froese⁠, O. Herrera⁠, W. Mérida. Putting electric vehicles on the map: A policy agenda for residential charging infrastructure in Canada. Energy Research & Social Science, 50, 29-37 (2019).
  22. D. Lopez-Behara, M. Tran, T. Froese, J. Mayaud, O. Herrera, W. Mérida. “Charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in Multi-Unit Residential Buildings: Mapping feedbacks and policy recommendations.”Energy Policy, 126, 444-451 (2019).
  23. 2018

  24. P. Perera, K. Hewage, M. Shahria Alama, W. Mérida, R. Sadiq. Scenario-based economic and environmental analysis of clean energy incentives for households in Canada: Multi-criteria decision-making approach.” Journal of Cleaner Production 198, 170-186 (2018).
  25. B. Zahiri, A. Hill, R. M. Felix, C. H. Kung, T. Sharma, J. D. Real, W. Mérida. Through-Plane Wettability Tuning of Fibrous Carbon Layers via O2 Plasma Treatment for Enhanced Water Management.” Applied Surface Science, 458, 32-42 (2018).
  26. C.H. Kung, B. Zahiri, P.K. Sow, W. Mérida. "Electrochemical Wettability Control on Cu/CuxO Core-Shell Dendrites: In-Situ Droplet Modulation and On-Demand Oil-Water Separation." Materials Research Society Advances, 3(53), 3163-3169 (2018).
  27. C.H. Kung, B. Zahiri, P.K. Sow, W. Mérida. On-demand oil water separation via low-voltage wettability switching of core-shell structures on copper substrates.” Applied Surface Science, 444, 15-27 (2018).
  28. S.R. Asaee, A. Sharafian, O.E. Herrera, P. Blomerus, W. Mérida. “Housing Stock in Cold-Climate Countries: Conversion Challenges for Net Zero Emission Buildings.” Applied Energy, 217, 88-100 (2018).
  29. H. Talebian, O. Herrera, M. Tran, W. Mérida. “Electrification of Road Freight Transport: Policy Implications in British Columbia.Energy Policy, Energy Policy 115, 109-118 (2018).
  30. M. A. Escalante, T. Mithrush, A. Bassama, W. Mérida. “A sensitivity analysis to determine technical and economic feasibility of energy storage systems implementation: a flow battery case study.” Renewable Energy 115, 547-557 (2018).
  31. 2017

  32. L. Burhenne, C.Giacomin, T. Follett, J. Ritchie, J. S. J. McCahill, W. Mérida. “Characterization of reactive CaCO3 crystallization in a fluidized bed reactor as a central process of direct air capture.” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(6), 5968-5977 (2017).
  33. B. Zahiri, P.K. Sow, C.H. Kung, W. Mérida. “Active Control over the Wettability from Superhydrophobic to Superhydrophilic by Electrochemically Altering the Oxidation State in a Low Voltage Range. Cover Article for the Journal of Advanced Materials Interfaces, 4(12), 1700121 (2017).
  34. B. Zahiri, P.K. Sow, C.H. Kung, W. Mérida. “Understanding the wettability of rough surfaces using simultaneous optical and electrochemical analysis of sessile droplets.” Journal of Colloids and Interface Science, 501, 34-44 (2017).
  35. A. Sharafian, H. Talebian, P. Blomerus, O. Herrera, W. Mérida. A review of liquefied natural gas refueling station designs.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 69, 503–513 (2017).
  36. 2016

  37. B. Zahiri, P.K. Sow, C.H. Kung, W. Mérida. Validation of surface wettability theories via electrochemical analysis. Electrochemistry Communications 68, 95-98 (2016).
  38. A. Sharafian, O. E. Herrera, W. Mérida.Performance analysis of liquefied natural gas storage tanks in refueling stations.”Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering 36(A), 496–509 (2016).
  39. P. K. Sow, Z. Lu, H. Talebian, L. Damron, W. Mérida. Double Layer Capacitance Measurements to Characterize the Water Intrusion into Porous Materials.” J. Phys. Chem. C, 120 (43), 24794–24802 (2016).
  40. S. Prass, S. Hasanpour, P. Sow, P. Andre, W. Mérida. “Microscale X-ray tomographic investigation of the interfacial morphology between the catalyst and micro porous layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.” Journal of Power Sources 319, 82-89 (2016).
  41. D. Todd, S. Bennett, W. Mérida. “Anisotropic electrical resistance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell transport layers as a function of cyclic strain. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 41, 6029-6035 (2016).
  42. M. Escalante, W. Mérida. “Analysis of Energy Dissipation and Turbulence Kinetic Energy Using High Frequency Data for Wind Energy Applications.” Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 151, 137-145 (2016).
  43. D. Todd, W. Mérida. Synthesis of transport layers with controlled anisotropy and application thereof to study proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance.” Journal of Power Sources 311, 182-187 (2016).
  44. 2015

  45. M. Schwager, S.R. Dhanushkodi, W. Mérida. “Comparison of Startup and Shut down cycles in a Non-Segmented and Segmented Polymer-Electrolyte-Membrane Fuel Cell Hardware.” Electrochemical Society Transactions 66(5), 13-20 (2015).
  46. P.K. Sow, S. Prass, W. Mérida. “An Alternative Approach to Evaluate the Wettability of Carbon Fiber Substrates.” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 7(39), 22029–22035 (2015).
  47. F. Capitanio, S.R. Dhanushkodi, T. Biggs, W. Mérida. “Understanding flexural, mechanical and physico-chemical properties of gas diffusion layers for polymer membrane fuel cell and electrolyzer systems.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 40(46) 16846–16859 (2015).
  48. P. Kalisvaart, H. Friske, W. Mérida. Water uptake and swelling hysteresis in a Nafion thin film measured with neutron reflectometry.”  Langmuir 31(19), 5416–5422 (2015).
  49. M. Escalante, A. Alnnagar, W. Mérida. The Economic Feasibility of Renewable Energy for Off-Grid Mining Deployment.”  The Extractive Industries and Society 2(3), 509–518 (2015).
  50. M. Escalante, W. Mérida. Regarding the influence of the Van der Hoven Spectrum on Wind Energy Applications in the Meteorological Mesoscale and Microscale. Renewable Energy, 81, 286-292  (2015).
  51. M. Schwager, S. Dhanushkodi, W. Mérida. An Approach to Measure the Water Breakthrough in Porous Carbon Materials.”  ECS Electrochemistry Letters 4(4)  F1-F3 (2015).
  52. S. Flick, S. Dhanushkodi, W. Mérida. “Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells via Voltage Loss Breakdown.” Journal of Power Sources  280, 97-106 (2015).
  53. P. Sow, S. Prass, P. Kalisvaaart, W. Mérida. “Deconvolution of electrical contact and bulk resistance of gas diffusion layers for fuel cell applications.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 40(6), 2850-2861 (2015).
  54. D. Todd, M. Schwager, W. Mérida. ”Three-Dimensional Anisotropic Electrical Resistivity of PEM Fuel Cell Transport Layers as Functions of Compressive Strain.” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162(3), F265-F272 (2015).
  55. D. Todd, W. Mérida. “Morphologically controlled fuel cell transport layers enabled via electrospun carbon nonwovens.” Journal of Power Sources 273(1), 312-316 (2015).
  56. 2014

  57. S. Dhanushkodi, M. Schwager, W. Mérida. PEMFC  durability: spatially resolved Pt dissolution in a single cell.” Journal of the Electrochemical Society 161(14), F1315-F1322 (2014).
  58. S. Dhanushkodi, M. Schwager, W. Mérida. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells: Characterization and Diagnostics.Transactions of the Electrochemical Society 64(3), 547-557 (2014).
  59. D. Todd, M. Schwager, W. Mérida. “Thermodynamics of high temperature and pressure water electrolysis.” Journal of  Power Sources 269, 424-429 (2014).
  60. S. Flick,M. Schwager, E. McCarthy, W. Mérida. “Designed Experiments to characterize PEMFC material properties and performance.”  Applied Energy 129, 135-146 (2014).
  61. R. Huizing, W. Mérida, F. Ko. Impregnated electrospun nanofibrous membranes for water vapour transport applications. Journal of Membrane Science 461, 146-160 (2014).
  62. 2013

  63. S. Flick, W. Mérida. "Design of Experiments to Evaluate Material Characteristics of Porous Transport Layers in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells.” Transactions of the Electrochemical Society 55(13), 843-855 (2013).
  64. E. McCarthy, S. Flick, W. Mérida. Response surface methods for membrane humidifier performance.” Journal of Power Sources 239, 399-408 (2013).
  65. E. Rothuizen, W. Mérida, M. Rokni, M. Wistoft-Ibsen.Optimization of hydrogen vehicle refueling via dynamic simulation.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 38(11), 4221-4231 (2013).
  66. 2012

  67. O. Herrera, D. Wilkinson, W. Mérida. Anode and cathode overpotentials and temperature profiles in a PEMFC.” Journal of Power Sources. 198, 132-142 (2012).
  68. 2011

  69. C. Guzmán, A. Alvarez, O.E. Herrera, R. Nava, J. Ledesma-Garcia, Luis A. Godínez, L.G. Arriaga, W. Mérida. Water Transport in Composite Membranes Containing Silica: Temperature and Relative Humidity Effects.” International Journal of Electrochemical Science 6, 4648 – 4666 (2011).
  70. C. Guzmán, A. Álvarez, Luis A. Godínez, O.E. Herrera W. Mérida, J. Ledesma-García, L.G. Arriaga. Evaluation of a ZrO2 Composite Membrane in PEM Fuel Cells Operating at High Temperature and Low Relative Humidity.” Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems 14(2), 93-98 (2011).
  71. A. M. Niroumand, W. Mérida, M. Saif. “PEM fuel cell low flow FDI.” Journal of Process Control. 21(4), 602-612 (2011).
  72. S.G. Rinaldo, C.W. Monroe, T. Romero, W. Mérida, M. Eikerling. Vaporization-Exchange Model for Dynamic Water Sorption in Nafion: Transient Solution.” Electrochemistry Communications 13(1), 5-7 (2011).
  73. R. Alink, D. Gerteisen, W. Mérida. "Investigating the Water Transport in Porous Media for PEMFCs by Liquid Water Visualization in ESEM." Fuel Cells 11, 481-488 (2011).
  74. D. Gerteisen, W. Mérida, T. Kurz, P. Lupotto, M. Schwager, C. Hebling. “Spatially Resolved Voltage, Current and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.”  Fuel Cells 11, 339-349 (2011).
  75. 2010

  76. M. Adachi, T. Romero, T. Navessin, Z. Xie, Z. Shi, W. Mérida, S. Holdcroft. Water Permeation Through Catalyst-Coated Membranes.” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 13(6) B51-B54 (2010).
  77. D. Kadylak, W. Mérida. "Experimental verification of a membrane humidifier model based on the effectiveness method." Journal of Power Sources, 195, 3166-3175 (2010).
  78. A.M. Niroumand, W. Mérida, M. Eikerling, M. Saif. "Pressure-Voltage Oscillations as a Diagnostic Tool for PEFC Cathodes." Electrochemistry Communications 12, 122-124 (2010).
  79. 2009

  80. T. Romero and W. Mérida. “Water transport in liquid and vapour equilibrated Nafion™ membranes.” Journal of Membrane Science, 338, 135-144 (2009).
  81. J.M. Le Canut, R. Latham, W. Mérida, D. A. Harrington. “Impedance study of membrane dehydration and compression in PEM fuel cells.”  Journal of Power Sources, 192(2), 457-466 (2009).
  82. S. Zhang, X. Yuan, H. Wang, W. Mérida, H. Zhu, J. Shen, S. Wu, J. Zhang. “A review of accelerated stress tests of MEA durability in PEM fuel cells.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 34, 384-404 (2009).
  83. O.E. Herrera, W. Mérida, D.P. Wilkinson. "Sensing Electrodes for Failure Diagnostics in Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 190, 103-109 (2009).
  84. D. Kadylak, P. Cave, W. Mérida. “Effectiveness correlations for heat and mass transfer in PEMFC membrane humidifiers.” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52(5-6), 1504-1509(2009).
  85. 2008

  86. O.E. Herrera, W. Mérida, D.P. Wilkinson. "New reference approach for fuel cell performance evaluation." Transactions of the Electrochemical Society 16(2), 1915-1926 (2008).
  87. J. Wu, X.Z. Yuan, J.J. Martin, H.Wang,J.J. Zhang, J. Shen, S. Wuand, W. Mérida. "A review of PEM fuel cell durability: Degradation mechanisms and mitigation strategies." Journal of Power Sources, 184(1), 104-119 (2008).
  88. C. Monroe, T. Romero, W. Mérida, M. Eikerling. "A Vaporization-Exchange Model for Water Sorption and Flux in Nafion." Journal of Membrane Science, 324, 1-6 (2008).
  89. R. Huizing, M. Fowler, W. Mérida, J. Dean. "Design methodology for membrane based plate and frame fuel cell humidifiers.” Journal of Power Sources 180(1), 265-275 (2008).
  90. C.J.B. Dicken, W. Mérida. "Modelling the Transient Temperature Distribution within a Hydrogen Cylinder during Refuelling." Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications 53, 1-24 (2008).
  91. P. Cave, W. Mérida. “Water flux in membrane fuel cell humidifiers: flow rate and channel location effects.“  Journal of Power Sources 175(1), 408-418 (2008).
  92. 2007

  93. W. Mérida. “An Empirical Model for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Diagnostics. Electrochemical Society Transactions 5(1), 229-239 (2007).
  94. C.J.B. Dicken, W. Mérida. "Measured effects of filling time and initial mass on the temperature distribution within a hydrogen cylinder during refuelling." Journal of Power Sources 165, 324-336 (2007).
  95. C. Lee, W. Mérida. "Gas diffusion layer durability under steady-state and freezing conditions." Journal of Power Sources 164, 141-153 (2007).
  96. P. Poudenx, W. Mérida. ”Energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions from urban passenger transportation versus availability of renewable energy in  the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley.” Energy 32(1), 1-9 (2007).
  97. 2006 and earlier

  98. W. Mérida, D.A. Harrington, J.M. Le Canut, G. McLean. “Characterisation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Failures via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.” Journal of Power Sources 161, 264-274 (2006).
  99. W. Mérida, P.C. Maness, R.C. Brown, D.B. Levin. “Enhanced hydrogen production fromindirectly heated, gasified biomass, and removal of carbon gas emissions using a novel biological gas reformer.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 29(3), 283-290 (2004).
  100. W. Mérida, G. McLean, N. Djilali. "Non-Planar Architecture for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells." Journal of Power Sources 102, 178-185 (2001)
  101. W. Mérida, J.A. Barclay. Monolithic Regenerator Technology for Low Temperature (4 K) Gifford-McMahon Cryocoolers. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, 43, 1597-1604 (1998).
  102. W. Mérida, D.S. Scott. "Use of Barrier and Attractor Analysis for Identifying Hydrogen System Opportunities with Illustrations for Latin America." Hydrogen Energy Progress XII, 1, 357-368 (1998).

2360 East Mall
Vancouver, B.C. 
V6T 1Z3 Canada

Copyright © 2020 MéridaLabs
All rights reserved